Red deer (Cervus elaphus) occurs in Europe, North America, mainly in large, dense forest complexes, especially in the mountains. The largest (behind the elk)  representative of the deer family.  Male red deer is typically 175 to 230 cml ong and weighs 160 to 240 kg.  Female is 160 to 210 cm long and weighs 120 to 170 kg. Size varies in different subspecies with the largest, the huge (but small antlered) deer of the Carpathian Mountains weights up to 500 kg. Only the stags have antlers (which start growing in the spring and are shed each year, usually at the end of winter). Antlers are made of bone which can grow at a rate of 2,5cm a day.  Soft covering known as velvet helps to protect in the spring newly forming antlers.Mature red deer usually stay in single-sex groups for most of the year. During the mating ritual, (called the rut) they compete for the attentions of the hinds and will then try to defend hinds that they attract. The gestation period is 240 and 262 days.Offspring weigh about 15 kg. After two weeks, fawns are able to join the herd and are fully weaned after two months.



Sika Deer (Cervus nippon) also known as the Spotted Deer or the Japanese Deer. He cames from East Asia. At the end of the last century, introduced into Europe. To Poland imported in 1895 and denizened to the surroundings Elblag and Pszczyna. Hunted for their meat, leather and antlers, as a fair game. It is easy to tame. Not much larger than roe deer. The smallest form ocames from eastern Japan, and the largest from Manchuria. The Sika Deer is a highly vocal species, with over 10 individual sounds ranging from soft whistles to loud screams. Rut takes placeat the turn of september and december. Sika males are territorial and keep harems of females during the rut. Strong, prime bucks may hold up to 2 hectares. Fights between rival males are sometimes fierce and long, may even be fatal.



Fallow Deer (Dama dama) This common species is native to western Eurasia, but has been introduced in many places. Less timid than deer. Very good sense of smell and hearing, eyesight is better developed than the other deer. Adult bucks are 85–95cm shoulder height, and 70-100kg in weight. Does are 75–85cm shoulder height, and 40-50kg in weight. Fawns are born in spring at weigh around 4.5kg. Life span is around 12–16 years.



Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is a Eurasian species of deer.  Relatively small, reddish and grey-brown, well-adapted to cold environments. Rump patches differ between the sexes, with the white rump patches heart-shaped on females and kidney-shaped on males. Only males have antlers. The first and second set of antlers are unbranched and short (5–12 cm), while older bucks in good conditions develop antlers up to 20–25 cm. It feeds mainly on grass, leaves, berries and young shoots. Males exhibit territorial behavior. Pregnancy in roe deer fertilized during the summer heat (from mid-July to mid August) takes almost 10 months, in the case of fertilization in November or December 4,5 months (winter rut occurs in unfertilized goats during the summer heat). Roe fertilized in the summer for the first five months of pregnancy is occurring latent gestation. It rests on inhibition of embryo development  in the blastocyst stage for about 150 days.

 

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